By Sam Glucksberg
This e-book examines how humans comprehend utterances which are meant figuratively. usually, figurative language similar to metaphors and idioms has been thought of by-product from extra advanced than ostensibly hassle-free literal language. Glucksberg argues that figurative language comprises an analogous sorts of linguistic and pragmatic operations which are used for traditional, literal language. Glucksberg's study during this ebook is anxious with usual language: expressions which are utilized in lifestyle, together with conversations approximately daily issues, newspaper and journal articles, and the media. Metaphor is the most important concentration of the ebook. Idioms, besides the fact that, also are handled comprehensively, as is the idea of conceptual metaphor within the context of the way humans comprehend either traditional and novel figurative expressions. a brand new concept of metaphor comprehension is recommend, and evaluated with appreciate to competing theories in linguistics and in psychology. The vital guiding principle of the idea is that standard conversational metaphors are used to create new ideas and different types. This technique is spontaneous and automated. Metaphor is distinctive in basic terms within the feel that those different types get their names from the simplest examples of the issues they symbolize, and that those different types get their names from the easiest examples of these different types. hence, the literal "shark" could be a metaphor for any vicious and predatory being, from unscrupulous salespeople to a murderous personality within the Threepenny Opera. as the related time period, e.g.,"shark," is used either for its literal referent and for the metaphorical classification, as in "My attorney is a shark," we name it the dual-reference concept. the speculation is then prolonged to 2 different domain names: idioms and conceptual metaphors. The ebook provides the 1st complete account of ways humans use and comprehend metaphors in lifestyle.
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Additional resources for Understanding Figurative Language: From Metaphor to Idioms (Oxford Psychology Series)
This is often as real of literal comparability statements because it is of metaphorical ones. hence, salience imbalance can't distinguish among literal and metaphorical comparisons simply because such imbalance characterizes all informative comparisons. This principled failure of the salience imbalance speculation is sufﬁcient to reject it as a foundation for a version of comprehension. yet there's an excellent extra basic challenge that applies to matching versions typically. As Ortony (1979) famous, many metaphoric comparisons appear to contain homes that aren't a part of the listener’s wisdom of the subject in any respect till the metaphor is uttered and understood. Ortony observed this as estate advent, and it happens at any time when a listener is informed anything fresh concerning the topic of a comparability, as in Roger is sort of a pit bull in college conferences. The houses of pit bull during this context have been by no means a part of the listener’s psychological illustration of Roger. If comprehension includes a look for matching houses, then it might by no means achieve this example. 36 knowing FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE It sincerely can be successful, and so we needs to abandon an easy matching mechanism in desire of a estate attribution process (Tourangeau & Sternberg, 1981; Camac & Glucksberg, 1984; Ortony et al. , 1985; Glucksberg & Keysar, 1990; Gentner & Wolff, 1997; Glucksberg, McGlone, & Manfredi, 1997). This attention means that matching versions as a rule can't account for comprehension of both metaphoric or literal similarity statements. Ortony’s argument referring to estate advent applies with equivalent strength to the 2 types of similarity statements. If i do know not anything approximately copper, then telling me that it's like tin introduces houses to my psychological illustration of the idea that copper. Informative literal comparisons, for that reason, additionally can't be in line with a profitable look for matching homes. in its place, as Ortony astutely argued, they have to be in response to the popularity of salient and suitable houses of a predicate which can sensibly or plausibly be attributed to the topic of the comparability. natural matching types, then, may possibly function versions of comparison-statement review or veriﬁcation. they can't function the foundation for versions of ways humans interpret such statements, be they literal or metaphorical, until they're elaborated to accommodate the problems raised the following. Metaphors as Implicit Similes: Structural Alignment Gentner and Wolff (1997) realize that natural matching types fail to catch very important metaphoric phenomena, as initially argued through Glucksberg and Keysar (1990, 1993). we've got already mentioned the function choice challenge, an issue well-known through matching theorists yet both ﬁnessed or inadequately addressed (e. g. , Tversky, 1977; Ortony, 1979). A moment challenge is how gains are matched. In metaphoric comparisons akin to males are like wolves and my attorney is sort of a shark, the way wolves are predators isn't like the way in which males are predators, which in flip isn't like the best way sharks are predators and attorneys are predators.