By Dietz Otto Edzard
It sort of feels secure to claim that this "Sumerian Grammar" through Professor D.O. Edzard becomes the recent vintage reference within the box. it truly is an up to date, trustworthy advisor to the language of the Sumerians, the inventors of cuneiform writing within the overdue 4th millennium B.C., and therefore crucial individuals to the excessive cultural typical of the entire of Mesopotamia and past. Following conventional traces, the "Grammar" describes basic features, origins, linguistic atmosphere, phonetics and phonology, morphology, syntax, and phrasing. Due realization is given to the symbiosis with Semitic Akkadian, with which Sumerian was once to shape a veritable linguistic region. With lucid factors of all technical linguistic conception. each one transliteration contains its English translation.
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Extra info for Sumerian Grammar (Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section One, the Near [And] Mi)
And, O Nan“e, the other ordinances may well not at all rival with you(rs)” Nan“e Hymn 251. For Gudea Stat. B vii 50 nu-ga-àm “nor is it” see 12. eleven. 2. 1. [. . . ] mu-tar, Ur-dNin-∞gír-su, ù nam-érim, nu-ga-ma-tar “[. . . ] has sworn, as for U. , he didn't swear an (assertive) oath in my favour” ITT II 5758 r. 1'–4'. 12. 12. 2. three. [ga-nga] gan ga-ni-re7-en-dè-en gan ga-an-ga-àm-gi(! )-dè-en [ga-nga-mm(i)gigi(! )-(n)den] “come, let’s cross there, come, let’s additionally go back right here” the 3 Ox Drivers thirteen. edzard_f13_70-155/PDF 4/28/03 2:45 PM web page one hundred twenty five one hundred twenty five 12. 12. 2. four. [he-nga] é ki-hur-sa6-ga-ù∞g-sa∞g-∞gi6-ga ì-me-en-na-ke4-e“, ì-ze-è∞g-bi-ta íb-ba sumu-ug-ga hé-en-ga-mu-e-da-TAB. TAB-e-e“ “although, O apartment, you was where of pleasure for the Black-headed ones, rather than its gala's (emesal for ezem) they (doubled with you =) gave in go back to you either wrath and catastrophe” Lament of Ur 116–117. 12. 12. 2. five. [na-nga] en-e ní∞g-du7-e pa na-an-ga-àm-mi-in-è (var. naM-ga-), . . . , an ki-ta baD-rˆe6-dè sa∞g na-an-ga(-àm)-ma-an-“úm “the Lord, you have to be aware of (na-), made seem the following what's due, in vibrant model, . . . and, extra over, he in reality gave heed to split heaven from earth” construction of the Pickaxe 1 . . . five. notice: The activities defined in strains 1 and five are hooked up via (i)nga . . . (i)nga, lit. “both . . . and . . . ”. na- in line 1 is the aﬃrmative naII- usually stumbled on before everything of stories (see 12. eleven. 10), and it really is repeated in line five, most likely as a result of rhyme. en-na W. ù N. na-an-ga-ti-la-a“ igi-ni-ne-“è ì-gub-bu(-d) so long as both W. or N. will truly be alive, he (= the followed individual) will (stand sooner than them =) be at their provider” ARN 7:8–11. É-an-na-túm-me gal na-ga-mu-zu “Eanatum in reality additionally is aware this: . . . ” Ean. 1 xxi 12–13, r. i 31–32, and so on. (the word whenever introduces the magic ritual played with pigeons). ki “à-∞gu10 na-an-ga-ma-ab-bé-a “(I will loosen my sandals) at whichever position my center tells me” Lugalbanda I 178 (this is the climax after a chain of cohortative verbal types brought via ga-). Mu-ni-na-ga-me “Whichever be his/her (= the divinity’s) identify” previous Sum. PN, DP 95:4, and so forth. ; see Struve 1984, 124. na-an-gaba(! )-ti-[l]a-da [na-nga-ba-til-ed-a] “as lengthy as he lives” NRVN 1, 236:4. [nanga] happens in a frozen shape in u4 na-an-ga-ma [na-nga(-i)me-a? ] “whichever day it truly was once” within the experience of “formerly” (see Wilcke 1969, 159 advert line 74). notice: For the ‘inverted’ series inga-na- see less than, 12. 12. 2. eight. 12. 12. 2. 6. [ “i-nga] u4-ba ∞gé“tu-diri . . . ki-tu“-a-ni-ta “à-di∞gir-re-e-ke4 “i-in-ga-zu-a . . . á imma-an-á∞g “then the very clever one . . . who even from his place of abode ﬁnds out in regards to the (heart =) intentions of the gods . . . gave instruc tion” Inanna and Enki SLTNi. 32:9–10 (Farber-Flügge 1973, 18). edzard_f13_70-155/PDF 4/28/03 2:45 PM web page 126 126 nin9-∞gu10 ama-∞gu10 “i-ga-mi-in-na “my sister who, as we all know (“i-), also are my mom” VS 2, 27 v 7. . . . me-e “i-in-ga-m[èn-na], . . . me-e “i-in-ga-mèn-[na] “I who, as one is aware, am . . . , and who, as one is familiar with, additionally am .