Download E-books Newton: A Very Short Introduction PDF

Newton's acceptance was once the topic of excessive debate lengthy earlier than his dying in 1727. whereas alive, a variety of rivals sought to topple his theories, and his perspectives on faith have been thought of via many to be unorthodox. For the majority of students, although, his groundbreaking method of technology overrode all else.

This ebook uses formerly unpublished inner most writings and manuscript resources to give a concise exploration of the interior springs of Newton's complicated personality. Robert Iliffe describes Newton's reviews in fields starting from alchemy, physics, and arithmetic, in addition to his arguable spiritual ideals, and concludes with a attention of the legacy left after his dying. Newton will gratify readers who're drawn to the genuine heritage at the back of one of many world's so much mythical scientists.

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Extra resources for Newton: A Very Short Introduction

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Ac. uk). All Newton’s theological papers, and the colossal bulk of his optical papers should be to be had via 2010, whereas it truly is envisaged that the scientific, mathematical, and administrative papers will persist with sooner or later. the location additionally comprises introductory tests and articles approximately Newton and his paintings in addition to a considerable variety of different fundamental assets resembling all of the significant released and unpublished biographical fabrics on Newton composed within the 18th and nineteenth centuries. The Chymistry of Isaac Newton venture (http://webapp1. dlib. indiana. edu/newton/index. jsp) has already put on-line lots of Newton’s alchemical writings and goals to make all of his paintings during this region to be had within the following few years. As pointed out in bankruptcy 1, the key scholarly biographies written within the previous few a long time are these of Richard S. Westfall and Frank Manuel; Manuel’s Isaac Newton Historian (Cambridge, CUP, 1963) continues to be the easiest account of Newton’s chronological writings. John Herivel’s, The heritage to Newton’s Principia (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1965) and Unpublished Papers of Isaac Newton, ed. A. R. and M. B. corridor (Cambridge, CUP, 1978) reproduce significant Principia-related drafts and revisions. Newton’s optical Lucasian lectures are reproduced in vol. 1 of Alan Shapiro’s projected 3-volume 133 Newton version of Newton’s optical papers (Cambridge, CUP, 1984– ), whereas these and not using a thorough historical past in arithmetic can be sorely proven by way of the magnificent variation of Newton’s Mathematical Papers edited in eight volumes via D. T. Whiteside (Cambridge, CUP, 1967–81). Eighteenth and 19th century biographical fabrics on Newton are actually to be had in print, in Rebekah Higgitt, Rob Iliffe and Milo Keynes (eds), Early Biographies of Isaac Newton, 1660–1885 (2 vols), (Pickering & Chatto, 2006). 134 Index optics 107 in Principia 99–100, 114 Ayscough, William eight, sixteen A B aether 60–2, sixty three, sixty five, sixty six, 68–9, ninety three, ninety nine, 117 air 60–1, sixty two, sixty five, ninety eight air-pumps 29, 31, sixty one, sixty two, 63–4, 116 alchemy five, 6, 22, fifty four, sixty eight, sixty nine, 109, 118 Algarotti, Francesco 126 algebra thirteen, 23, forty two, 104 Anglican church 128 animals eleven, 33, fifty four, fifty eight, 60, sixty five, seventy one, ninety nine, 131 Anne, Queen 114, 117, 119 anti-trinitarianism seventy three, one zero five, 107, 121 Apollonius 23 apostasy seventy six, seventy eight, eighty, eighty one Aristotle 20, 21–2, 23, 28, 29, 36, 37, ninety six Arius seventy nine Aston, Francis fifty five, fifty six astrology, judicial 17 astronomy 20–1, 22, seventy one, ninety six, 121, see additionally comets; planetary movement Athanasius seventy two, eighty atheism 33, a hundred and twenty atoms 29 appeal three, eighty four, 86, 89, ninety four, a hundred and five, 124–5 Earth 26 electrical 62–3 magnetic 23, 31, sixty two, 88, ninety nine Babington, Humphrey 10–11, sixteen, 18 Bacon, Francis 22 financial institution of britain 112 Barrow, Isaac 18, 23, 26, forty-one, forty two, fifty two Bate, John 10, eleven, 12 Bentley, Richard 70 Bernoulli, Johann 123 Bible 70, seventy two, 107–9, 128–9 Biot, Jean-Baptiste four ebook of Revelation 74–9 Boyle, Robert 29, 31, forty five, fifty four, fifty five, fifty six, sixty one, 63–4, sixty eight Brewster, David five Burnet, Thomas sixty nine, 70, ninety four C Cabbalists 127 calculus three, 25, 26, ninety five, 106, 120–1, 122–3 Cambridge collage eight, eleven, 51–2 Catholics 103–4 Lucasian Chair of arithmetic 18, forty-one, 104 member of parliament for a hundred and five Newton at three, four, thirteen, 14, 16–19 Newton papers five Caroline, Princess 123, 124, a hundred twenty five, 129 one hundred thirty five Newton D Catholics and Catholic Church 21, seventy seven, seventy nine, 80–2, 103–4, 107–8 centrifugal strength 27, fifty one, eighty five, 88–9 centripetal allure ninety, ninety one, ninety four, ninety nine Chaloner, William 113 Charles I, King eight Charles II, King eight, sixteen Châtelet, Madame du 126 Christianity seventy two, 127–8 chromatic aberration 39–40, forty six chronology 126, 128–9, a hundred thirty, 133 Clark, Joseph nine Clarke, Samuel 123, 124 harmony 29, 116, 122 coinage 112–13 Collins, John forty two, forty three, 50, a hundred and twenty, 122 color 35–8, 45–51, 65–6, 124 comets 30, seventy one, 86–7, ninety, ninety one, ninety three, ninety six, ninety eight condensation fifty eight, 60, sixty two, a hundred Conduitt, Catherine 1, four, five, 17, 106, 112, 126, 131 Conduitt, John 1–3, four, 6, eight, nine, 35, seventy one, 126, 127, 131, 132 Confucius 127 Constantine, Emperor seventy nine Conti, Antonio 129 Copernican astronomy 20–1, 23 Cotes, Roger 121, 122 Desaguliers, Jean-Théophile 123–4 Descartes, René three, four, 18, 22–3, 25, sixty seven atheism and 33 on comets 30, 86 on movement sixty four on prisms 36 on vortices 24, 29, ninety five differential calculus 25, one hundred twenty, 121 differential refrangibility 36, 38, forty eight, 50 diffraction sixty six, 114 Diocletian, Emperor seventy nine Dürer, Albrecht seventy eight E Earth 28, 60, 69–70, seventy one, ninety eight, 126 eclipses 129 Egyptians 96–7, 129–30 electrical energy 23, 62–3, sixty six, ninety nine, 116–17, 122 ellipses 21, 23, 39, 84–6, 89, ninety, ninety two, ninety three, ninety eight, one hundred and one English civil wars eight equinoxes 129 ethics thirteen, 20, 28 Euclid 17, 18, 23, seventy five exploration 22 F Fatio de Duillier, Nicolas sixty nine, one hundred and five, 109, a hundred and ten, one hundred twenty 136 Gregory, James 25 Grimaldi, Francesco sixty six fermentation fifty four, sixty three, sixty eight, ninety nine, a hundred, 116 Flamsteed, John five, 86, 87, ninety one, ninety seven, one hundred ten, 117–20, 128 fluxions 26, forty two, forty three, 121 Fontenelle, Bernard de 1–2, three, four Francis, Father Alban 103 loose will 32, 122, 124 Fréret, Nicolas 129 H G Galileo Galilei 20, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28, ninety Gascoignes, John fifty two generalized binomial theorem 18, 25–6, forty-one Genseric (Vandalic chief) eighty geography forty three geometry 23, forty two, 104, 106 George, Prince of Denmark 117, 123 George I, King three, 124 Glanvill, Joseph 34 Gnosticism 127 God sixty four, seventy two, seventy three, 121, 122 construction sixty nine, a hundred and fifteen, a hundred and twenty, 124 Goths eighty gravitation sixty nine, 83–6, 92–3, ninety eight, one hundred and five, 122 Descartes on 23 Galileo on 22, 27–8, 30–1 God 114 speculation on sixty three Greeks ninety six, 106 Gregory, David seventy one, one hundred and five, 106, a hundred and ten, 114 Gregory, Francis 14 I idolatry 127–8, one hundred thirty mind's eye 34 inertia 26, eighty three, eighty four, 86, ninety three, 116 infinite sequence 25, 41–2, fifty three, 106 integration a hundred and twenty inverse-square legislation 28, 86, 89, ninety, 100–1 Islam eighty one J James II, King 103, 104 Jeffreys, pass judgement on 103–4 137 Index Halifax, Charles Monague, Baron 112, 114 Halley, Edmond 86, 89, a hundred, a hundred and one, a hundred and ten, 118, a hundred and twenty, 123, 132 harmonic ratios 20, forty two, 106, 124 Hauksbee, Francis 116 warmth 23, sixty one, sixty five, ninety nine Herodotus 129 Hobbes, Thomas 33 Hodgson, James 117, 118 Hooke, Robert 36, 38, forty eight, fifty three demise of 114 disputes with Newton 66–7, 100–2 Micrographia sixty five, sixty six orbital dynamics 83–4, 86 Huygens, Christiaan 27, forty three, forty eight, 50, fifty one, one hundred and five Maier, Michael fifty six Manuel, Frank 6 arithmetic 17, 18 algebra thirteen, 23, forty two, 104 binomial theorem 18, 25–6, forty-one calculus three, 25, 26, ninety five, 106, 120–1, 122–3 geometry 23, 104, 106 infinite sequence 25, 41–2, fifty three, 106 Lectiones du Motu ninety five, ninety seven, ninety eight logarithms forty-one, fifty one Principia publication three 101–2 subject 22, 23, 29, fifty nine, 94–5, a hundred Mead, Richard 1 mechanics 22, 26–8, 86, see additionally movement Mede, Joseph seventy four Mercator, Nicholas forty-one mercury sixty eight metals fifty nine, sixty eight, 70, 112–13 metaphysics 29, 121, 127 mind-body relationships 32, fifty five, 64–5, 117, see additionally soul minerals fifty eight, 60, 70, a hundred Moon 21, 26, 28, 30, 69–71, seventy five, ninety five, 97–8, a hundred and ten, 117, 119 extra, Henry 29, seventy four extra, Thomas 32 movement eleven, 12, 22, 26–7, sixty five, 116 inertia 26, eighty three, eighty four, 86, ninety three, 116 planetary 21, 83–99 Principia 26, 27, ninety, ninety four, ninety nine muscle move 32, 63–4 Jerome, Father 108 Jesuits 52–3 Jones, William 121, 122 Josephus 129 judicial astrology 17 Jupiter 21, seventy one, ninety two okay Keill, John 122 Kepler, Johannes 20–1, 23, 86, ninety Keynes, John Maynard 5–6 Newton L Leibniz, Gottfried three, 26, forty two, ninety five, a hundred and five, 106, 118, 120–5 lenses 38–9, forty two mild 45–53, sixty one, 117–18, 122, 124 color 35–8, 45–51, 65–6, 124 diffraction sixty six, 114 white 38, forty two, forty six, forty eight, fifty one, see additionally refraction Linus, Francis fifty two Locke, John 35, 107, 108, 109 logarithms forty-one, fifty one Loggan, David fifty three common sense 28, 124 Lucas, Anthony fifty two, fifty three Lucasian Chair of arithmetic, Cambridge collage 18, forty-one, 104 M magnetism 23, 31, sixty two, 88, ninety nine 138 N average philosophy 20, 22, 28, 33, forty two, fifty five, ninety, a hundred and five, 114–15, 121 Nature 57–9, sixty one, sixty two, sixty three Neale, Thomas 113 New testomony 74–9, 107–8 Newton, Hannah (nee Ayscough) (mother) 6, eight, nine, 14, 15, sixteen, eighty three Newton, Humphrey four Newton, Isaac (father) 6, eight Newton, Sir Isaac forty three old wisdom ninety six, ninety seven, 106, 127, 129, one hundred thirty anonymity forty two ‘apple tale’ 26, 28 inventive skill eleven biographies approximately 1–7, 132 at Cambridge three, four, thirteen, 14, 16–19 personality four, five, 14, 117, 118, 119, one hundred twenty, 128, 130–1 charitableness three, 17, 18, 131 formative years 6, 8–9 dying 1 early machine-building 9–13 Flamsteed 110–11, 117–20 Hooke 48–50, 66–7, 100–2 knighthood 114 Leibniz three, 120–5 Lucasian Chair forty-one as Member of Parliament one hundred and five, 114 psychological breakdown five, fifty three, 109–10 ‘Philosophical Questions’ laptop 28–33, 36, 70 O previous testomony seventy three, 128–9 Oldenburg, Henry forty three, forty seven, forty eight, fifty one, fifty three, sixty two, sixty seven, sixty eight optics 20, 21, 34–40, forty two, 45–51, 52–3, sixty six Oughtred, William 23 Ovid 106 139 Index plagiarism accusation 66–7 president of the Royal Society 114 non secular ideals four, five, 6, 72–3, 107–9, 121, 127–8 at Royal Society 45–51 university years 9–11, 14–15, sixteen scriptural exegesis 70, 73–9, 107–9 self-experimentation 34–5, 37, 39, forty on sovereign powers 104 Warden of the Mint a hundred and ten, 112–14 works by means of ‘De Analysi’ 41–2, forty three De Quadratura curvarum 106 ‘Hypothesis’ 65–6, sixty eight ‘Of Natures noticeable legislation and strategies in crops’ 57–9 Optice 115–16, 124 Opticks 39, forty seven, sixty one, 107, 114, 117, one hundred twenty Principia see Principia Numa Pompilius ninety six Newton P Q parabolas 22, 23, 25, ninety eight Pearson, John sixteen, 19 Pemberton, Henry 126 Pepys, Samuel 109 philosophy 96–7, 107, 124 plagiarism 66–7, one zero one plague 18 planetary movement 21, 83–99 Plato 29, ninety six Pope, Alexander 1 Portsmouth, fifth Lord five Principia (Newton) three, four, 6, sixty nine, ninety four booklet 3 ninety eight, 101–2 celestial motions eighty five Conclusio ninety nine, 107 non-stop appeal 89 De Mundi ninety five, 96–8 common Scholium 116–17, 121–2 Kepler’s legislation and 21 legislation of movement 26, 27, ninety, ninety four, ninety nine Lectiones du Motu ninety five, ninety seven, ninety eight lunar concept one hundred ten good fortune of one zero five 3rd variation of 126 common Gravitation revisions 105–6 prisms 35–8, forty two, 45–7, 52–3 prophecy 74–82, 127–8, 132 Protestantism 20, seventy four, seventy five, seventy seven, 104, a hundred and five, 128 putrefaction fifty nine, 60, sixty three Pythagoras ninety six, 127 quadratures 25, 26, forty two, 106 R reflection 61–2, sixty three, sixty seven refraction 37–40, 45–7, 52–3, 61–2, sixty seven Hooke 48–9, sixty six refrangibility 36, 38, forty six, forty eight, 50 repulsive strength 39, 87, 88, 99–100, 107 Roman Empire 79–80 Royal Society forty three, forty four, 45–8, fifty two, sixty seven, eighty three, 114, 118 S salt 60 satellites 21, seventy one, ninety one, ninety two, ninety five Saturn ninety two, ninety seven, a hundred thirty Scientific Revolution 20 Sesostris one hundred thirty Simon, Richard 107 Sluse, René François de 25 Smith, Barnabas nine Socrates 127 Souciet, Etienne 129 soul 32–3, 64–5, 118 house sixty four, one hundred fifteen, a hundred and twenty, 124 Sprat, Thomas 18 sq. numbers fifty one Starkey, George fifty four, fifty five, fifty six Stokes, John 15, sixteen Storer, Arthur 14 Storer, Edward 14 Stukeley, William four, nine, 10, eleven, 12, 15, sixteen, 114 one hundred forty Viète, François 23 Vigani, John Francis four Vincent, Mrs 9–10 Virgil 106 Voltaire 1, 126 vortices 24, 29, 30, sixty nine, ninety five, a hundred and five, 121 Voyage of the Argonauts 129–30 solar 34, 35, sixty three, 70, seventy one, 86–8, ninety two, ninety six, ninety eight supernovas seventy one T tangents 23, 25, 26, forty two telescopes 21, 39–40, forty two, 43–4, forty six theology 33–4, sixty four, 96–7, 121 exchange 22 transmutation 54–7, fifty eight, ninety nine, a hundred trepanning 32, sixty three Trinity university, Cambridge see Cambridge collage Turkish empire eighty one W U common Gravitation 28, ninety two, ninety eight, ninety nine, 106 see additionally gravitation V van Helmont, J.

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