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By Margaret M. Miles

Cleopatra—a courageous, astute, and captivating girl who spoke many languages, entertained lavishly, hunted, went into conflict, eradicated siblings to consolidate her strength, and held off the specter of Imperial Rome to guard her nation so long as she could—continues to fascinate centuries after she governed Egypt. those wide-ranging essays discover such subject matters as Cleopatra’s debatable journey to Rome, her suicide by way of snake chew, and the afterlife of her love potions. They view Cleopatra from the Egyptian standpoint, and view the reception in Rome of Egyptian tradition, particularly of its faith and structure. They speak about motion pictures approximately her, and look at what encouraged Egyptomania in early glossy paintings. jointly, those essays remove darkness from Cleopatra’s legacy and illustrate the way it has been used and reused during the centuries.

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17 She used to be eventually murdered for her difficulty in one hundred and one B. C. via Ptolemy X. The queen herself is usually depicted through historians in a sympathetic gentle, as a sufferer of her uncle Ptolemy VIII’s lust in her early years, which led to the sad joint rule of her mom Cleopatra II, herself, and certainly one of her sons (Justin 38. 8). at the back of those later literary impressions, notwithstanding, existed an Egyptian queen who essentially aimed to enhance her energy and standing. Papyri point out that Cleopatra III believed herself to be Isis and that she followed the priestly roles, similar to priest of the cult of Alexander the nice, in most cases held via the male ruler. She promoted her personal cult as herself, as well as herself as Isis, Cybele, and Aphrodite. 18 The queen additionally claimed 5 out of the 9 Alexandrian eponymous priesthoods for her personal cults. 19 Her visible pictures additionally show an bold reaction to her person strength: Cleopatra III are available to take the dominant place on aid scenes, akin to status in entrance of Ptolemy IX, her son, in an supplying scene on the Karnak temple. 20 apparently, this actual queen followed a extra masculine photograph in either her Greek and Egyptian-style sculptural representations. 21 using the non secular equipment of ruler-cults, hieratic nomenclature, and legit sculpture in temples was once a tremendous expression of ruling authority 26 Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt for Cleopatra III and her mom Cleopatra II, and shaped a part of the royal background for Cleopatra VII. T H E C H A L L E NGE OF R E PR E SE N T I NG ROM A N  PA RT N E R S compared to these predecessors, Cleopatra VII controlled to flee her marital and kinfolk ties extra simply: her alliance with Julius Caesar freed her from Ptolemy XIII, and Ptolemy XIV’s younger age positioned him at a drawback within the face of her reinforced place and her son Ptolemy XV (Caesarion). 22 like any her predecessors, Cleopatra VII was once obliged to have a male consort, necessary to the pharaonic approach, which trusted female and male pairing, and while she is proven in pictures making an delivering to the gods herself, her consort are available in a parallel sign in doing an identical. the particular conditions of her lifestyles have been extra complex than this implies, and the issues gave upward push to creative dilemmas and difficulties in respectable nomenclature. within the Hellenistic Greek culture it kind of feels to were attainable to give a longer relatives and the queen’s enthusiasts, yet Egyptian monks and certainly even artists should have felt a minimum of careworn and stymied, due to the fact that a few of her authentic relationships particularly had no conventional parallel in pharaonic imagery. Her male affiliates incorporated her father Ptolemy XII, her brothers Ptolemy XIII and XIV, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, and her son Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Paternal, maternal, and sibling relationships all had visible and titular precedents previous within the Ptolemaic interval, as illustrated through the titles Philopator, Philometor, and Philadelphos, yet Julius Caesar and Marc Antony created a brand new challenge for the Egyptian priesthood (and for the queen): how may still her organization with those Romans in Egypt be represented, fairly on account that they have been the fathers of royal little ones?

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