By Josef Stern
The numerous philosophers, linguists, and cognitive scientists writing on metaphor over the last twenty years have mostly taken without any consideration that metaphor lies outdoor, if now not towards, acquired conceptions of semantics and grammar. Assuming that metaphor can't be defined through or inside of semantics, they declare that metaphor has little, if whatever, to coach us approximately semantic thought. during this e-book Josef Stern demanding situations those assumptions. he's involved essentially with the query: Given the obtained perception of the shape and objectives of semantic conception, does metaphorical interpretation, in complete or half, fall inside its scope? in particular, he asks, what (if whatever) does a speaker-hearer understand as a part of her semantic competence whilst she is familiar with the translation of a metaphor? in response to Stern, the reply to those questions lies within the systematic context-dependence of metaphorical interpretation. Drawing on a deep analogy among demonstratives, indexicals, and metaphors, Stern develops a proper thought of metaphorical which means that underlies a speaker's skill to interpret a metaphor. together with his semantics, he additionally addresses quite a few philosophical and linguistic matters raised by way of metaphor. those contain the interpretive constitution of advanced prolonged metaphors, the cognitive value of metaphors and their literal paraphrasability, the pictorial personality of metaphors, the position of similarity and exemplification in metaphorical interpretation, metaphor-networks, useless metaphors, the relation of metaphors to different figures, and the dependence of metaphors on literal meanings. in contrast to so much metaphor theorists, notwithstanding, who take those difficulties to be sui generis to metaphor, Stern subsumes them less than an analogous rubric as different semantic proof that carry for nonmetaphorical language.