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By Annliese Nef

The "Companion to Medieval Palermo" deals a landscape of the background of Medieval Palermo from the 6th to the 15th century.

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11–12 and 44). 72 Ibn Ḥawqal locates the Muʿaskar there, adverting additionally to a sector wealthy in little mosques (and accordingly in inhabited settlements) and in freshwater springs, while the Kitāb Gharāʾib al-funūn represents it as a habitat with farmsteads and cultivated areas. seventy eight alessandra bagnera on the foundation additionally of the city improvement of the tenth and eleventh centuries,73 the important road axis—likewise known as simāṭ, as we've said—skirted the western part of the nice mosque. seventy four an analogous was once actual of al-Qāhira (Cairo), the hot capital based in 969 in Egypt by way of the caliph al-Muʿizz, in the course of whose reign (953–973) the Kalbid emir of Sicily, Aḥmad b. al-Ḥasan (954–969) in-built Palermo, besides the opposite gates, the Bāb al-Riyaḍ. within the new capital of the Fatimids, gates (Bāb al-Futūḥ and Bāb alZuwayla) opened out directly to the a ways finish of the important highway axis, with regards to which the nice mosque of al-Azhar (970–972) was once as a substitute set again a substantial distance. seventy five If just like Palermo Ibn Ḥawqal has bequeathed to us has turn into emblematic of the town within the Islamic interval, a next section of city development and a few components brought after his stopover at in 973 are recorded within the Kitāb Gharāʾib al-funūn. The textual content and accompanying map convey to mild not just an intensified development programme affecting the complete city context—to the level even of changing the author’s conception of the final morphology of the city—76 but in addition a sequence of recent interventions, which, being attributed specifically to the emir Jaʿfar b. Yūsuf (998–1019), serve to outline identical to Palermo within the later Kalbid interval. The partitions of the Qaṣr al-qadīm (as Madīnat Balarm is talked about during this context) have been back affected either through the reinforcement of the traditional defences and by means of the outlet of 3 new gates. seventy seven meanwhile there's proof for the development of latest quarters whose demic densities different, for the intensification of the inhabited sector within the parts below cultivation to the west of the Cassaro, it sounds as if additionally stricken by the presence of dwellings of an aristocratic sort in and among gardens and hydraulic installations (see below), and, ultimately, for a parcellising of the city house with walled enclosures ringing even the bigger quarters. those final 73 Patrice Cressier et alii, “Les grands qualities de l’urbanisme,” in Patrice Cressier and Mourad Rammah, eds. , Ṣabra al-Manṣūriyya. 74 See Alexandre Lézine, “Le plan ancien de l. a. ville de Kairouan” in identity. , Notes d’archéologie ifriqiyenne, pp. 55–72, particularly p. sixty three; Sakly “Kairouan,” pp. 71–72. 75 See Fou’ad Sayyid “Le grand palais fatimide au Caire,” in Marianne Barrucand, ed. , L’Égypte fatimide, son paintings et son histoire (Paris, 1999), pp. 117–125, particularly fig. three. 76 The elongated type of the traditional urban will be remodeled to such an quantity that it grew to become round, or so the textual content tells us, a kind that the map reiterates by way of an iconographic styleme, attested in other places, that is symbolically linked to a dead ringer for the proper urban within the historic center East: see Bagnera and Nef, “Histoire et archéologie.

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